- Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer syndrome (HBOC)
- Lynch syndrome/Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC)
- Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP)/Attenuated Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (AFAP)
- MUTYH-associated Polyposis syndrome (MAP)
- MUTYH-associated Colon Cancer Risk
- Melanoma Cancer Syndrome (MCS)
- Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS)
- PTEN Hamartoma Tumor syndrome (PHTS)
- Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome
- Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer (HDGC) Syndrome
- Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome (JPS)
- Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome (JPS) and Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT)
- PALB2-associated Cancer Risk
- CHEK2-associated Cancer Risk
- ATM-associated Cancer Risk
- NBN-associated Cancer Risk
- BARD1-associated Cancer Risk
- BRIP1-associated Cancer Risk
- RAD51C-associated Cancer Risk
- RAD51D-associated Cancer Risk
- Polymerase Proofreading-associated Syndrome (PPAS)
- Hereditary Mixed Polyposis Syndrome (HMPS)
Melanoma Pancreatic Cancer Syndrome (M-PCS) CDKN2A ASSOCIATED CANCER RISKS
Melanoma Pancreatic Cancer Syndrome (M-PCS)
CDKN2A ASSOCIATED CANCER RISKS
What does it mean to have a CDKN2A (p16INK4a) gene mutation, and a diagnosis of Melanoma Pancreatic Cancer Syndrome (M-PCS)?
People with mutations in the CDKN2A (p16INK4a) gene have a condition called Melanoma Pancreatic Cancer Syndrome (M-PCS). People with M-PCS have a high risk for melanoma. These melanomas often occur at young ages. It is not unusual for a person with M-PCS to develop melanoma two or more times during their lifetime. Some people with M-PCS also have a high risk for pancreatic cancer. The risk for pancreatic cancer is a more serious concern for people who have a family history of pancreatic cancer in one or more relatives.
M-PCS was once known as Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma syndrome (FAMMM). That name is no longer used because multiple moles are no longer thought to be a common symptom of this condition. Also, instead of the full version of the gene’s name, CDKN2A (p16INK4a) is sometimes simply called p16.
In addition to the risk for melanoma and the possible risk for pancreatic cancer, there may also be an increased risk for lung, head and neck cancers. It is well known that smoking also increases the risk for these cancers, and the same is true for pancreatic cancer. It is possible that people who have M-PCS further increase their cancer risk by smoking.
What can be done to protect people with M-PCS from cancer and other health problems?
The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) and the Melanoma Genetics Consortium provide recommendations for lowering the risk of melanoma which apply to people with M-PCS. These include warning people to be extra cautious about sun exposure, beginning early in childhood. People with M-PCS should inspect their own skin for suspicious moles frequently, with help from family members. They should also have regular skin inspections by trained healthcare professionals.
People with mutations in CDKN2A (p16INK4a) who also have a history of pancreatic cancer in their family may want to have pancreatic cancer screening. At this time, pancreatic cancer screening is usually performed in research settings.
Since M-PCS is still considered to be a relatively rare condition and the best ways to prevent melanoma and pancreatic cancer are still being studied, it is recommended that people with mutations in the CDKN2A (p16INK4a) gene be cared for by healthcare professionals with experience treating this condition.
Additional details about CDKN2A (p16INK4a) gene mutations and M-PCS, specific recommendations for medical care, and useful information for relatives of people who have a diagnosis of M-PCS, are available within our Support Organizations pages.
CDKN2A (p16INK4a) gene
Associated Syndrome Name: Melanoma-Pancreatic Cancer Syndrome (MPCS)
CDKN2A (p16INK4a) Summary Cancer Risk Table
|Cancer||Genetic Cancer Risk|
CDKN2A (p16INK4a) gene Overview
Melanoma-Pancreatic Cancer Syndrome (MPCS) 1, 2, 3, 4
- Individuals with CDKN2A (p16INK4a) mutations have Melanoma-Pancreatic Cancer Syndrome (M-PCS). This condition has previously been known as Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma syndrome (FAMMM).
- Patients with M-PCS have a high risk of developing melanoma. Exact estimates of the melanoma risk associated with CDKN2A (p16INK4a) mutations vary over a wide range, with higher risks found in patients who have a previous family history of melanoma.
- Patients with M-PCS due to mutations in CDKN2A (p16INK4a) may also have a high risk for pancreatic cancer. This risk may not be present in all families with mutations in CDKN2A (p16INK4a), so concern about pancreatic cancer risk should be higher for patients who have a family history of this cancer.
- It has been suggested that patients with CDKN2A (p16INK4a) mutations have an increased risk for cancers other than melanoma and pancreatic cancer. In particular, there is evidence for an association with tobacco-related cancers such as lung, head and neck. The data are not conclusive at this time and there are currently no medical management recommendations that address these possible risks.
- Although there is a high risk for melanoma and pancreatic cancer in patients with M-PCS, it may be possible to reduce this risk with appropriate medical management, including increased attention to surveillance and lifestyle modifications. Guidelines from expert groups for the management of patients with high risks for these cancers are listed below. Since information about the cancer risks associated with CDKN2A (p16INK4a) mutations is relatively new, and there is uncertainty about the best ways to reduce these risks, it may be appropriate to interpret these results in consultation with cancer genetics professionals who have expertise in this emerging area of knowledge.
CDKN2A (p16INK4a) gene Cancer Risk Table
|Cancer Type||Age Range||Cancer Risk||Risk for General Population|
|Melanoma||To age 502, 3, 5||14%-50%||0.3%|
|To age 802, 3, 5||28%-76%||1.6%|
|Pancreatic||To age 751, 5||Up to 17%||0.7%|
CDKN2A (p16INK4a) Cancer Risk Management Table
The overview of medical management options provided is a summary of professional society guidelines as of the last Myriad update shown on this page. The specific reference provided (e.g., NCCN guidelines) should be consulted for more details and up-to-date information before developing a treatment plan for a particular patient.
This overview is provided for informational purposes only and does not constitute a recommendation. While the medical society guidelines summarized herein provide important and useful information, medical management decisions for any particular patient should be made in consultation between that patient and his or her healthcare provider and may differ from society guidelines based on a complete understanding of the patient’s personal medical history, surgeries and other treatments.
|Cancer Type||Procedure||Age to Begin||Frequency |
(Unless otherwise indicated by findings)
|Melanoma||Education about the importance of skin protection, such as sun avoidance, protective clothing and sunscreen.8, 9||Infancy||Ongoing|
|Whole-body skin examinations conducted by the patient or family member.8, 9||10 years||Monthly|
|Clinical skin examinations by an appropriately trained provider, with consideration of whole-body photography and close-up photography of atypical nevi for ongoing comparison.8, 9||10 years||Every 6 to 12 months|
|Pancreatic||Consider available options for pancreatic cancer screening, including endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and MRI/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). It is recommended that patients who are candidates for pancreatic cancer screening be managed by a multidisciplinary team with experience in the screening for pancreatic cancer, preferably within research protocols.6, 7||Age 50, or 10 years younger than the earliest age of pancreatic cancer diagnosis in the family||Annually|
|Provide education about smoking cessation to reduce pancreatic cancer risk6||Individualized||Individualized|
Information for Family Members
The following information for Family Members will appear as part of the MMT for a patient found to have a mutation in the CDKN2A (p16INK4a) gene.
A major potential benefit of myRisk genetic testing for hereditary cancer risk is the opportunity to prevent cancer in relatives of patients in whom clinically significant mutations are identified. Healthcare providers have an important role in making sure that patients with clinically significant mutations are informed about the risks to relatives, and ways in which genetic testing can guide lifesaving interventions.
Since there are screening and preventative measures recommended to begin in infancy or early childhood for individuals with CDKN2A (p16INK4a) mutations, consideration should be given to the possibility of mutation testing at young ages.
- Vasen HF, et al. Risk of developing pancreatic cancer in families with familial atypical multiple mole melanoma associated with a specific 19 deletion of p16 (p16-Leiden). Int J Cancer. 2000 87:809-11. PMID: 10956390.
- Bishop DT, et al. Geographical variation in the penetrance of CDKN2A mutations for melanoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 94:894-903. PMID: 12072543.
- Begg CB, et al. Genes Environment and Melanoma Study Group. Lifetime risk of melanoma in CDKN2A mutation carriers in a population-based sample. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 97:1507-15. PMID: 16234564.
- Helgadottir H, et al. High risk of tobacco-related cancers in CDKN2A mutation-positive melanoma families. J Med Genet. 2014 51:545-52. PMID: 24935963.
- Fast Stats: An interactive tool for access to SEER cancer statistics. Surveillance Research Program, National Cancer Institute. https://seer.cancer.gov/faststats. (Accessed on 1-2-2017)
- Syngal S, et al. ACG clinical guideline: Genetic testing and management of hereditary gastrointestinal cancer syndromes. Am J Gastroenterol. 2015 110:223-62. PMID: 25645574.
- Canto MI, et al. International Cancer of the Pancreas Screening (CAPS) Consortium summit on the management of patients with increased risk for familial pancreatic cancer. Gut. 2013 62:339-47. PMID: 23135763.
- Kefford RF et al. Counseling and DNA testing for individuals perceived to be genetically predisposed to melanoma: A consensus statement of the Melanoma Genetics Consortium. J Clin Oncol. 1999 17:3245-51. PMID: 10506626.
- Coit DG et al. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology®: Melanoma. V 3.2018 July 12. Available at http://www.nccn.org.
Last Updated on 09-Jul-2019