- Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer syndrome (HBOC)
- Lynch syndrome/Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC)
- Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP)/Attenuated Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (AFAP)
- MUTYH-associated Polyposis syndrome (MAP)
- MUTYH-associated Colon Cancer Risk
- Melanoma Cancer Syndrome (MCS)
- Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS)
- PTEN Hamartoma Tumor syndrome (PHTS)
- Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome
- Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer (HDGC) Syndrome
- Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome (JPS)
- Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome (JPS) and Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT)
- PALB2-associated Cancer Risk
- CHEK2-associated Cancer Risk
- ATM-associated Cancer Risk
- NBN-associated Cancer Risk
- BARD1-associated Cancer Risk
- BRIP1-associated Cancer Risk
- RAD51C-associated Cancer Risk
- RAD51D-associated Cancer Risk
- Polymerase Proofreading-associated Syndrome (PPAS)
- Hereditary Mixed Polyposis Syndrome (HMPS)
Melanoma Pancreatic Cancer Syndrome (M-PCS) CDKN2A ASSOCIATED CANCER RISKS
Melanoma Pancreatic Cancer Syndrome (M-PCS)
CDKN2A ASSOCIATED CANCER RISKS
What does it mean to have a CDKN2A (p16INK4a) gene mutation, and a diagnosis of Melanoma Pancreatic Cancer Syndrome (M-PCS)?
People with mutations in the CDKN2A (p16INK4a) gene have a condition called Melanoma Pancreatic Cancer Syndrome (M-PCS). People with M-PCS have a high risk for melanoma. These melanomas often occur at young ages. It is not unusual for a person with M-PCS to develop melanoma two or more times during their lifetime. Some people with M-PCS also have a high risk for pancreatic cancer. The risk for pancreatic cancer is a more serious concern for people who have a family history of pancreatic cancer in one or more relatives.
M-PCS was once known as Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma syndrome (FAMMM). That name is no longer used because multiple moles are no longer thought to be a common symptom of this condition. Also, instead of the full version of the gene’s name, CDKN2A (p16INK4a) is sometimes simply called p16.
In addition to the risk for melanoma and the possible risk for pancreatic cancer, there may also be an increased risk for lung, head and neck cancers. It is well known that smoking also increases the risk for these cancers, and the same is true for pancreatic cancer. It is possible that people who have M-PCS further increase their cancer risk by smoking.
What can be done to protect people with M-PCS from cancer and other health problems?
The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) and the Melanoma Genetics Consortium provide recommendations for lowering the risk of melanoma which apply to people with M-PCS. These include warning people to be extra cautious about sun exposure, beginning early in childhood. People with M-PCS should inspect their own skin for suspicious moles frequently, with help from family members. They should also have regular skin inspections by trained healthcare professionals.
People with mutations in CDKN2A (p16INK4a) who also have a history of pancreatic cancer in their family may want to have pancreatic cancer screening. At this time, pancreatic cancer screening is usually performed in research settings.
Since M-PCS is still considered to be a relatively rare condition and the best ways to prevent melanoma and pancreatic cancer are still being studied, it is recommended that people with mutations in the CDKN2A (p16INK4a) gene be cared for by healthcare professionals with experience treating this condition.
Additional details about CDKN2A (p16INK4a) gene mutations and M-PCS, specific recommendations for medical care, and useful information for relatives of people who have a diagnosis of M-PCS, are available within our Support Organizations pages.
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