- Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer syndrome (HBOC)
- Lynch syndrome/Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC)
- Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP)/Attenuated Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (AFAP)
- MUTYH-associated Polyposis syndrome (MAP)
- MUTYH-associated Colon Cancer Risk
- Melanoma Cancer Syndrome (MCS)
- Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS)
- PTEN Hamartoma Tumor syndrome (PHTS)
- Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome
- Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer (HDGC) Syndrome
- Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome (JPS)
- Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome (JPS) and Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT)
- PALB2-associated Cancer Risk
- CHEK2-associated Cancer Risk
- ATM-associated Cancer Risk
- NBN-associated Cancer Risk
- BARD1-associated Cancer Risk
- BRIP1-associated Cancer Risk
- RAD51C-associated Cancer Risk
- RAD51D-associated Cancer Risk
- Polymerase Proofreading-associated Syndrome (PPAS)
- Hereditary Mixed Polyposis Syndrome (HMPS)
Lynch syndrome (LS) MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, AND EPCAM ASSOCIATED CANCER RISKS
Lynch syndrome (LS)
MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, AND EPCAM ASSOCIATED CANCER RISKS
What does it mean to have a diagnosis of Lynch syndrome?
Lynch syndrome (LS) is caused by mutations in one of five genes: MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, and EPCAM. LS is sometimes referred to as Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC). People with LS have a high risk for several different kinds of cancer. The highest cancer risks are for colorectal cancer in men and women and endometrial cancer in women. These cancers can develop at young ages, and some people with LS may be diagnosed with cancer two or more times during their lifetime. People with LS also have an increased risk for the following cancers: ovarian, stomach (gastric), small bowel, ureter/renal pelvis, pancreatic, hepatobiliary tract, brain and sebaceous gland.
The exact cancer risks and medical management guidelines for people with LS are different depending on the gene in which a mutation was identified. In most cases, cancer risks are higher for mutations in MLH1, MSH2 and EPCAM than for mutations in MSH6 and PMS2.
What can be done to protect people with LS from cancer?
The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) provides recommendations for lowering the risk of cancer in men and women with LS. Some recommendations include starting screening at a younger age and completing screenings more often than typically recommended. For example, colonoscopies to check for colorectal cancer should begin at age 25 or younger and should be done every 1 to 2 years for individuals with mutations in genes associated with LS.
Since women with LS have a high risk for ovarian and endometrial cancer, they may consider surgery to remove their ovaries and/or uterus after they have finished having children.
Because people with LS are at a high risk for many different types of cancer that may be hard to detect, it is recommended that people with LS be cared for by healthcare professionals with experience treating this condition.
Additional details about LS, including information about the risks for different kinds of cancers, specific recommendations for medical care, and useful information for relatives of people who have a diagnosis of LS are available within our Support Organizations pages.
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